### 1.  Data

We have whole genome sequencing data for more than 18M variants. After some initial analysis, three genes geneA, geneB, and geneC caught our eyes and we would like to further investigate these genes. We assume that we already have a project with all the variants imported

### 2.  Find variants that belong to the genes

We first need to get a list of genes

vtools use refGene


From the output

vtools show annotation refGene


we can see that it has locations of each gene, gene ID (NM_XXX) and a more common name name2. To select variants that belong to these genes, we can do

vtools select variant 'refGene.name2 in ("geneA", "geneB", "geneC")' -t gene_ABC


Or, if you prefer separating the tables, you can use commands

for gene in geneA geneB geneC
do
vtools select variant "refGene.name2='$gene'" -t$gene
done


to create three tables. To create another table with variants in these three tables, you could do

vtools compare geneA geneB --A_or_B gene_AB
vtools compare gene_AB geneC --A_or_B gene_ABC
vtools remove tables gene_AB


The last command remove the intermediate table gene_AB.

### 3.  Find variants that belong to a long list of genes

To subset a dataset to variants within a group of hundreds of genes, you need to create a small annotation database to link the gene list to the project, via, e.g., the refGene database. Suppose your list of genes are formatted like:

NEBL	NM_213569
NEBL	NM_213569
NEBL	NM_213569
NEBL	NM_213569
LINC00167	NR_024233
PGAP2	NR_027016
PGAP2	NR_027016
...


where the columns are gene name and (or) transcript name. You can create an annotation file for the gene list, e.g.,

[linked fields]
*=gene_name

[data sources]
description=My gene selection for xxx project
version=20130419
anno_type=field
source_type=txt

[gene_name]
index=1
type=VARCHAR(255)
comment=Gene name

[transcript_name]
index=2
type=VARCHAR(255)
comment=Transcript name


and the annotation database

vtools use MyGenes.ann -f my_gene_list.txt --linked_by refGene.name2


Note that the default linked field is "gene_name", the gene names. Alternatively you can choose to link by transcript name, e.g.

vtools use MyGenes.ann -f my_gene_list.txt --linked_by refGene.name --linked_fields transcript_name


Finally select the variants belonging to this list of gene

vtools select some_table "MyGenes.gene_name is not NULL" -t my_genes


### 4.  Find variants that belong to exonic regions of the genes

Annotation database refGene_exon lists all exonic regions of each gene. To use this annotation database, you can download and use the latest version of this database using command

vtools use refGene_exon


Then select variants that belong to the exonic regions of the genes using command

vtools select variant 'refGene_exon.name2 in ("geneA", "geneB", "geneC")' -t gene_ABC


Or separately for each gene:

for gene in geneA geneB geneC
do
vtools select variant "refGene_exon.name2='$gene'" -t${gene}_exon
done


## 4.1  Finding variants around a gene (e.g. promotor regions)

If you would like to find all variants that are in vicinity of genes (e.g. 2k basepair in the upstream and downstream of the gene), you will have to know the position of the genes. You could get such information from UCSC database, or from the refGene database using commands such as

vtools execute 'SELECT chr, txStart, txEnd FROM refGene.refGene WHERE refGene.name2="geneA"'


This query is database dependent. You could use command sqlite3 annotation.DB .schame to get the structure of database if you would like to know the structure of another annotation database and submit a similar query.

After you get the starting and ending locations of the genes, you could select a variants using commands such as

vtools select variant 'chr="5"' 'pos>=7152445' 'pos<=7158882' -t geneA_ext